Textile Abbreviations

ANIMAL FIBERS

SE Silk The silk material was known to mankind more than 5,000 years ago. For the first time it was created in China and, after the discovery of the so-called Silk Road, this material has become very popular in several European countries. This material was loved by high-class people, as they considered it a symbol of wealth and money. At the same time, the color of silk indicated the status of a person in society. The natural silk is obtained from the cocoons of the silkworm. Today, to produce natural material, entire industrial centers are created, in which the larvae are cultivated. In turn, the larvae show very high productivity results. A silkworm can lay more than five hundred eggs a year. When the silkworm cocoon is ready, it is opened only by natural methods. For example, the pupae are treated with hot air. As insects eat only the natural mulberry leaves and the silk is naturally extracted, the producers can obtain the high-quality material, characterized by tenderness and softness. Quite rightly, this process is very scrupulous, so today the industry has optimized production using mechanized workbenches.
WV Virgin Wool This type of wool is very popular for its unique characteristics. The name of this material is literally translated as wool of a virgin animal, in our case, of a sheep. In other words, the fiber threads are used for the first time. To produce this material only the wool of young sheep is used, so that the fiber is homogeneous, delicate and pleasant to the touch. When a small lamb or a young sheep throws wool, this material is used to produce virgin wool. This raw material does not require pretreatment, as it already has all the necessary properties. When the fiber is ready, the composition of impurities does not exceed three percent. The fibers absorb steam and body heat well, so you do not get cold wearing clothes made of virgin wool. This fiber can conserve heat well. In addition, clothes of virgin wool do not accumulate pills. It should be noted that this delicate material is well worn, does not wrinkle and is easy to clean. You will not waste much time washing or ironing it, as it is resistant to dirt.
WA Angora Angora fabric belongs to the group of woolen materials. Due to the fact that the fabric is based on knitwear, the fiber extends well. That's why angora is often used in the production of warm clothes, and at the same time will be perfectly worn. The material is natural, as the second component in its composition is rabbit or goat fur. Obviously, the cost of such a material is high, so less expensive alternatives are often used to produce cheaper options. Although the composition of the material does not include the natural fur of the animal but its substitute, the material will have a high degree of softness and excellent thermal insulation properties. Usually, standard material is made in white color, but different colors can also be obtained, since the fiber can be colored. To make the material as soft and warm as possible, ordinary wool or merino wool is used. If the sheep's wool is added to the composition, then this material will last more than a year, maintaining the necessary properties.
WK Camel Camel wool is a very popular natural and ecological material. The wool of the animal is not uniform and has two layers, one of which is external and the second is internal, so this material differs in appearance and value. The outer layer is rougher, while the inner layer remains very soft. The undercoat of the camel is appreciated more than the wool of sheep, moreover this raw material is also more resistant. It is very difficult to color the natural camel hair, so in most cases the wool is sold in its natural appearance. Since no chemical is used to color the fabric, the fiber is safe for people suffering from allergic reactions. The fiber produced from camel wool is soft and pleasant to the touch, it also has calming properties. Camel wool creates an ideal body temperature, thanks to which the body will not sweat or freeze. Camel wool is breathable, allowing the body to breathe. Another important advantage is that the material does not accumulate static energy.
WS Cashmere The Europeans became aware of a light and delicate material called cashmere thanks to Napoleon, who brought this fiber to his beloved woman many years ago. Convinced of the excellent characteristics of the material, Napoleon began to send this material to the continent, after which cashmere became in common use. True cashmere is made with a Tibetan goat wool. These animals are found in the mountains of India and China. In spring, when the air temperature rises, the hot wool is no longer necessary for the animal, so people start combing it with special combs. People have been trying to breed animals in artificial conditions for many years because cashmere was a soft, pleasant material and kept the heat. But this has negatively affected the quality of the fur. So, the best natural fur can only be produced from the wool of a Tibetan animal. An animal can give about 100 grams of raw materials and all the work is done exclusively by hand. In this case, the fiber is light and breathable. Let’s imagine: its thread is three times thinner than a man's hair. At the same time the material is soft and warm.
WM Mohair The natural mohair is obtained from goat's wool. Raw materials from animals of angora are used during production. The fibers are long and voluminous. The fibers also have a special fleece, which makes the material soft and delicate. Because the yarn content in the natural material is over 83%, the fiber is durable, elastic and easy to use. Mohair clothes are not crumple and effectively resist fires. As for the value of this material, it is more appreciated than the wool of Angora sheep. The appearance of the fiber is ideal without the need for additional tinting. In the primary form, it has a uniform color that varies from white to gray-brown. The material also has a slight shine. Since it is very difficult to work with the wool in its primary form, acrylic or normal wool is added the mixture in order to obtain a better elasticity and strength of the fibers. Moreover, mohair may vary depending on the hardness of the fibers, which depends on the age of the animal the wool of which was used to make the material. The most delicate mohair is made from the wool of baby goats under two years.
HS Horse Hair Since horsehair grows throughout an animal's life, it is constantly renewed and improved. Ideally, the hair of a healthy animal is smooth and shiny. This material is highly appreciated for its unique properties. The main advantage of this material is its resistance to stretching, it extends well and has a greater thickness. Not only horsehair can be used in industry, but also the hairs under the hooves. Horsehair is often used in the production of special fabrics. This material is used to sew durable and wear-proof coats. Furthermore, the resistant material is used to produce ropes, cords, lines and bows. This material can be found in the composition of furniture upholstery. In many countries, the process of obtaining horsehair is optimized. You can obtain thousands of tons of precious fiber using the right horsehair collection technology. In places where the horsehair collection is optimized, only the best animals are selected. Furthermore, to increase the life of the fiber, the material is covered with a layer of latex.
WB Beaver Beaver Wool
WP Alpaca Alpaca is a unique animal, famous for its fine and high quality wool. Alpaca wool is the most expensive type of wool. This material is appreciated not only because it has a luxurious appearance, but also for its healing properties. Animals have more than 20 shades, so there are different fibers, and the material is never colored. There are materials in white, black and also options of the passage of color from gray to brown. The fibers are strong and warm. The clothes made of alpaca wool are worn perfectly, provide comfort and warmth, and are very light. Despite being a type of wool, the fiber is very airy and maintains body heat well. The clothes of this material are the perfect option not only in winter, but also in hot weather. The surface of the material does not accumulate lint, the material is treated in its natural form, without impurities and additional paints, so it is safe and hypoallergenic.
WO Recycled Wool Regenerated wool is obtained by picking a remnant of wool or yarn residues. Wool that is part of a material worn for a long time can be shabby and overused. In this case, the fibers are picked out for reuse. The fibers can also be removed from the waste after weaving or finishing works. After cutting, there are many materials from which natural fibers can be extracted. Of course, during this process the fibers are damaged, so the regenerated wool has a second-rate quality unlike natural wool. To produce regenerated wool fibers, not only pure wool fibers are used, but also knitted or carpet fabrics. Even if the original material is not as strong as real wool, it is still natural. This fiber is used to create materials for clothes or drapes. The percentage of regenerated wool in the plaid and blanket composition can reach up to 90%.

VEGETAL FIBERS

CO Cotton Cotton is a natural material produced in different parts of the world. For its production, a series of processes is applied, thanks to which ready cotton is obtained from natural raw materials, and then used in the production of clothing or industrial fabrics. The cotton industry includes about 50 different types of this material all over the world. This influences the characteristics of the ready material. Also, an important aspect is the processing method of the raw material. Cotton threads have the same length, but their weight and their diameter are different. The raw material can be collected manually or mechanically. The filtration of raw materials from garbage and impurities is a mandatory stage of production. So, the natural pure fibers are transformed into threads. They are also glued so that the material is durable and elastic. For this process, it is possible to use a starch solution or a synthetic base mixture. The next important step is the whitening of the fibers. To date, chemicals are used for this purpose. But since the material must be safe and hypoallergenic, manufacturers try to use mixtures based on peroxide or bleach. If necessary, the white canvases can be colored, maintaining the color well, without fading in the sun.
LI Linen Natural linen is much appreciated because the fiber is soft, pleasant to the touch and hypoallergenic. Clothes made from this fiber are breathable and keep body heat well. At the same time, the material is durable and resistant. People started making linen many years ago. For a long time, it was difficult to mechanize the production of linen because to obtain this delicate material it was necessary to use only manual labor. That's why this fiber was always precious and expensive. Today the situation has changed slightly, and linen is produced on special spinning benches. What remains unchanged is that the same plants are used as raw materials. First, the plants are harvested and macerated. Today the period to macerate the fabric reaches about eight days, instead one hundred years ago this process took much longer time. Subsequently, the fibers are dried and treated with special equipment, allowing a long and uniform yarn to be obtained. The fibers are combed and spun, which makes the final material uniform and resistant.
RA Ramie The technology for producing nettle fiber was invented many years ago. Today the fiber production technology is also used because of high-quality and naturalness of the obtained material. In this case, respecting the original technology, it is possible to obtain the best quality fiber. Our ancestors collected the nettle at the beginning of spring. Subsequently, the raw material is well dried. Then it is necessary to remove all the dried leaves and debris. The well dried raw material should melt well under the fingers and be crackling. After the people crushed the fibers by hand. It was necessary to make the maximum effort, since the quality of the crushing directly influenced the strength of the fiber. Subsequently, the fibers were pressed together and combed to make them uniform. Today, the production of nettle fiber is more mechanized, but the unique properties of the material remain the same. This fabric is used in the production of clothes, sails, bags and nets. It is also worth noting the healing properties of this material. It is not by chance that our ancestors made clothes and linens from nettle.

ARTIFICIAL FIBERS

VI Viscose Viscose belongs to the category of artificial fabrics, but it is not a synthetic fabric. This material appeared for the first time in the 19th century. It's been a long time; the material continues to be used now because of its unique properties. Depending on how the material is treated, it can be further used to produce clothes, shoes or even packs. But also on the basis of material processing, it is possible to obtain a result similar to silk, wool or linen. Modern production is based on the production of viscose based on the wood material. At the same time, the raw materials are crushed and boiled for a long time. The gray mass is bleached and pressed. In the future, the thread is produced from the layers. The textile material is soft and draped. During the production stage, the fabric can be painted in any color and keep it for a long time. The canvas is highly resistant and hypoallergenic.
CU Cupro The cupro material is notable for its perfect smoothness and brilliance. Because of its unique composition, the material resembles natural cotton, being hypoallergenic and resistant. For the first time this material appeared a hundred years ago. It was obtained from wood raw materials and fibers that cover cotton seeds. After production, the material became viscous and elastic. Next, the dark liquid mixture was passed through fine sieves, allowing the finer threads to be obtained. It was also necessary to treat the threads with sulfuric acid. As a result, the wires were transparent and very smooth. Although the fabric is obtained through artificial processes, it is difficult to call it synthetic. In any case, its base is the natural raw material. Thus, this unique material combines various properties that make it very popular and demanded. The fiber becomes uniform and very smooth. The material absorbs moisture well, so that the cupro clothes give freshness and a sense of purity to the body. The material is breathable, providing the perfect microclimate for the body in all weather conditions. The fabric is durable and elastic, and the high-quality structure allows the material to be worn perfectly and maintain the original appearance for a long time.
MD Modal It is no secret that the modern textile industry has achieved such capabilities that artificial fabrics can overcome natural materials in many properties. An excellent example of this is the modal material. This fiber belongs to the viscose subspecies. Even though the material became famous a short time ago, it has already managed to achieve great popularity. The fiber is produced by the passage of cellulose through special filters. Furthermore, the production of this material is done without the use of chlorine. In the production, eucalyptus, beech or pine cellulose is used. The fiber obtained is thin, light and transpiring. The material is very hygroscopic. In this property, the material can also exceed cotton. In other words, its fibers absorb moisture better. It is also surprising that a modal fiber with a length of over ten thousand meters weighs only 1 gram. Even if the fabric does not have a completely natural composition, it is not toxic. Being a breathable fabric, the material creates pleasant sensations and is very easy to clean.
CLY Lyocell Lyocell is a unique material made of cellulose. The raw material is extracted from eucalyptus wood. Therefore, the final material has a natural origin and is safe for human health. Lyocell is used in bed linen, which is considered the most prestigious. This material was first received in the late 1980s in Great Britain. One of the textile companies succeeded in creating the fiber, which resembled viscose in its properties. When the material was presented to the public and everyone saw its unique properties, an entire production was opened. Although the process of making this material is still artificial, the material is not worse than silk or organic cotton. If the fiber contains 100% of the natural ingredients, its cost will be very high. This is motivated by the fact that rare materials are used to produce the material and the production technology is very expensive.
CA Acetate The acetate material is one of the fabrics that combine the unique properties of natural and synthetic fibers. For the first time, acetate appeared in Britain at the beginning of the last century. The basis of the production of this fiber is cellulose. At the same time, production technology is unique because different chemical agents are used. The name acetate derives from the use of acetone as a solvent for chemical reactions. These types of fabrics include acetate and triacetate. The fabrics differ in the production method and in the type of solvents used. However, the final material has the same properties. In order to produce the acetate with better qualitative characteristics, in its composition are added natural fibers, which make the fabric more elastic and soft. The presence of synthetic impurities in the mixture helps to ensure the high elasticity of the fibers and their resistance. Acetate can be combined with polyester, but there are also popular combinations with cotton or wool.
TA Triacetate Triacetate is obtained during the chemical treatment of cellulose. This fiber is very popular because of its low price. The combination of a mixture of natural and artificial fibers allows to provide the unique characteristics to the material. The production of this material is based on the use of wood or cotton cellulose waste. In the future, the fiber is acetylated. Thanks to the application of the dry method, the modified fibers are obtained. The solution is passed through special sieves, the fibers are hardened and the threads become very thin and smooth. As a result, we can obtain fibers that are resistant to light and heat. Because the type of material production is synthetic, the fiber will be resistant to the influence of many chemicals. If necessary, the material can be colored, and the color will remain the same. Clothing made with this fabric retains its shape and has a breathable effect. The maintenance of the fabric is very simple, since there is no need to use special detergents to remove dirt. From the appearance, the material looks like silk, but it is much cheaper.

SYNTHETIC FIBERS

PL Polyester The famous polyester material is a very durable and wear-proof fabric. The fabric is easy to use because polyester clothes do not wrinkle and do not fade. The maintenance of the material is quite simple, since the surface of the material repels dirt. After washing, polyester clothing dries quickly and does not need to be ironed. For the first time the world has heard of this material in the late 50s of the last century, but its production has been started later. Before the fabric was used to produce packaging materials. After the world was convinced of the unique properties of this material, attempts were made to sew clothes. The results have shown that polyester products are very simple in use, retain their appearance for a long time, do not wrinkle and do not lose their original color due to frequent washing. The composition of the fabric may contain both natural and synthetic components. In this case, the basis to produce polyester derives from the waste of the oil industry. In other words, during the oil treatment, the polyester products are obtained, from which a polyester fabric is obtained through a long processing process. Depending on the type of production, the polyester composition contains wool or viscose. In this case, each type of material will have unique properties.
PA Polyamide The polyamide material is a popular component, which is added to the composition of synthetic fabrics to ensure their brightness, smoothness and brilliance. Often it is possible to find the polyamide without additions, which surface is not smooth, but slightly rough. Thanks to this, the material can be colored easily and preserve its original color for a long time. Polyamide is often present in the laundry composition. Special fibers make this material very soft. These products will be pleasant to the touch, resistant and elastic. The elasticity of the material is provided by the presence of synthetic fibers in its composition. The advantages of this material are its durability and strength. The threads that look thin actually are much thicker than human hair. This means that only one wire can bear a weight of over a kilo and a half. The fiber is very elastic and keeps its shape well. The clothes made of this material are not crumple and their maintenance is very simple. We should note the perfect appearance of the ready fiber, characterized by its brightness, smoothness and uniformity. The material repels moisture and is resistant to the formation of bacteria and fungi.
PAN Polyacrylic The second name of polyacrylic is artificial wool. This material has a synthetic origin, since it is based on products synthesized from petroleum. This material has a natural wool-like hand, but at the same time its price is much cheaper. The fiber is light and soft, remaining resistant even after a long-term use. The polyacrylic structure consists of the woolly threads between which the air passes. At the same time, the material conserves heat, regulating body temperature. This means that this material is suitable for any period of the year. The fabric protects from overheating in summer, while in winter it protects your body from freezing. Polyacrylic is often used as a combination with wool. The material often appears in the composition of knitwear and synthetic fur. Its use allows to reduce the cost of products, preserving the high quality and resistance properties. If you use polyacrylic in the production of carpets, you can increase their durability without raising the price.
PU Polyurethane This material has become popular due to its use in the production of special clothing. The high-quality polyurethane is resistant to moisture and fire, so fibers are often used in the clothing of firefighters or policemen. The material is resistant to chemical agents, effectively protecting the human body. Mold, bacteria and fungi cannot multiply in the polyurethane fibers, so the clothes of this material can be used more than a year, keeping the unique properties. Respecting the production technology of special polyurethane clothing, it is possible to obtain the fabric resistant to temperatures from 65 degrees below zero to 85 degrees above zero. The surface of this material repels dirt, including lacquers and varnishes, so you will not have to spend much time for washing if these materials remain on your clothes. The fibers are elastic, so they are easily treated. It is worth noting the low cost of the material, as well as its duration in the case of use under any conditions.
EA Elastane The elastane material is considered a close relative of the polyurethane. The common feature of the two types of fibers is that they have a synthetic origin. The most common names of elastane are Lycra or Spandex. It is worth noting that the material is very rarely used in its pure form. This material very often is added to the composition of the fabric of natural or synthetic origin, improving its properties. In other words, this component provides the material with greater elasticity and resistance to mechanical impact. The elastan appeared in the last century in the United States. During chemical researches, the scientist Shivers received this component in the form of an elastic thread. In those times the threads were mainly used to create corsets for evening dresses. A few decades later, the material began to be used for the sportswear tailoring. Later, the material became the main component in the production of other types of clothing. The strength and elasticity of this material resemble elastic rubber. It can only be obtained under laboratory conditions, since the dense fibers can only bind to each other as the result of chemical formation from a special solution by applying dry or wet method. After hardening the threads, they are carefully washed and dried. Subsequently, they can be wound and formed in coils for further use in the textile industry.